Data hiding based on noise-like signal addressing




Spread Spectrum Steganographic, Data Hiding, cover images, direct spread spectrum, pseudo-random sequence


There are various computing techniques (methods) to transmit secret messages. For example, cryptographic techniques hide the semantic content of transmitted messages, presenting them in the form of noise-like minor data. Steganographic techniques hide the existence of information messages itself. In this case, messages are hidden inside cover files, i.e., redundant data that are transmitted in an open way and do not cause suspicion in anyone. An outside observer can intercept cover files, analyze and examine them. However, it is very difficult or even impossible to detect and recover hidden data. This article discusses the techniques for hiding data in cover images using direct spread spectrum. We propose a new technique that consists in direct addressing of pseudo-random sequences. On the one hand, it significantly reduces cover file distortion. On the other hand, the error rate in recovered messages does not increase. Our experiments have shown, that Spread Spectrum Steganography technique indeed reduce the distortion in cover images compared to other techniques. We give some illustrative examples and show the advantages of the proposed method. Even with a significant increase in encoding density, the quality of cover images does not degrade. We also conduct experiments and evaluate image quality based on Mean Squared Error (MSE) and Peak Signal-to-Noise Ratio (PSNR). The obtained results of experimental studies confirm the adequacy and reliability of the research results. The main disadvantage of the proposed data hiding technique is a high computational complexity. To recover messages, it is necessary to calculate sequentially the correlation coefficients with a large number of pseudo-random sequences.


Menezes A.J., Oorschot P.C. van Vanstone S.A., Oorschot P.C. van Vanstone S.A. Handbook of Applied Cryptography. CRC Press (2018).

Cox I., Miller M., Bloom J., Fridrich J., Kalker T. Digital Watermarking and Steganography. 2nd Ed. Morgan Kaufmann, Amsterdam; Boston (2007).

Fridrich J. Steganography in Digital Media Principles, Algorithms, and Applications. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge; New York (2009).

Rubinstein-Salzedo S. Cryptography. Springer International Publishing, Cham (2018).

Delfs H., Knebl H. Introduction to Cryptography. Springer Berlin Heidelberg, Berlin, Heidelberg (2015).

Singh A.K., Kumar B., Singh G., Mohan A. Secure Spread Spectrum Based Multiple Watermarking Technique for Medical Images // Singh A.K., Kumar B., Singh G. and Mohan A. (eds.) Medical Image Watermarking: Techniques and Applications. pp. 125–157. Springer International Publishing, Cham (2017).

Menon N., Vaithiyanathan A survey on image steganography // 2017 International Conference on Technological Advancements in Power and Energy ( TAP Energy). pp. 1–5 (2017).

Qin J., Luo Y., Xiang X., Tan Y., Huang H. Coverless Image Steganography: A Survey // IEEE Access. 7, 171372–171394 (2019).

Schöttle P., Böhme R.: Game Theory and Adaptive Steganography // IEEE Transactions on Information Forensics and Security. 11, 760–773 (2016).

Yahya A. Introduction to Steganography // Yahya, A. (ed.) Steganography Techniques for Digital Images. pp. 1–7. Springer International Publishing, Cham (2019).

Li M., Guo Y., Wang B., Kong X. Secure spread-spectrum data embedding with PN-sequence masking // Signal Processing: Image Communication. 39, 17–25 (2015).

Pomponiu V., Cavagnino D., Botta M. SS-SVD: Spread spectrum data hiding scheme based on Singular Value Decomposition // 2015 International Symposium on Consumer Electronics (ISCE). pp. 1–2 (2015).

Hua G. Over-Complete-Dictionary-Based Improved Spread Spectrum Watermarking Security // IEEE Signal Processing Letters. 27, 770–774 (2020).

Kokui N., Kang H., Iwamura K., Echizen I. Best embedding direction for spread spectrum-based video watermarking // 2016 IEEE 5th Global Conference on Consumer Electronics. pp. 1–3 (2016).

Torrieri D.: Principles of Spread-Spectrum Communication Systems // Springer International Publishing (2018).

Ipatov V.P. Spread Spectrum and CDMA: Principles and Applications. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK (2005).

Sklar B. Digital Communications: Fundamentals and Applications. Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ (2017).

Marvel L.M., Boncelet C.G., Retter C.T. Spread spectrum image steganography // IEEE Transactions on Image Processing. 8, 1075–1083 (1999).

Marvel L.M., Boncelet C.G., Retter C.T. Methodology of Spread-Spectrum Image Steganography. ARMY RESEARCH LAB ABERDEEN PROVING GROUND MD (1998).

Brundick F.S., Marvel L.M. Implementation of Spread Spectrum Image Steganography: Defense Technical Information Center, Fort Belvoir, VA (2001).

Eze P.U., Parampalli U., Evans R.J., Liu D. Spread Spectrum Steganographic Capacity Improvement for Medical Image Security in Teleradiology* // 2018 40th Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society (EMBC). pp. 1–4 (2018).

Nugraha R.M. Implementation of Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum steganography on audio data // Proceedings of the 2011 International Conference on Electrical Engineering and Informatics. pp. 1–6 (2011).

Youail R.S., Samawi V.W., Kadhim A.-K.A.-R. Combining a spread spectrum technique with error-correction code to design an immune stegosystem // Security and Identification 2008 2nd International Confer-ence on Anti-counterfeiting. pp. 245–248 (2008).

Yadav, P., Dutta, M.: 3-Level security based spread spectrum image steganography with enhanced peak signal to noise ratio. In: 2017 Fourth International Conference on Image Information Processing (ICIIP). pp. 1–5 (2017).

Smith J.R., Comiskey B.O. Modulation and information hiding in images // Anderson, R. (ed.) Information Hiding. pp. 207–226. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg (1996).

US-6557103-B1 – Spread Spectrum Image Steganography | Unified Patents,, last accessed 2020/09/14.

Zarmehi N., Akhaee M.A. Video steganalysis of multiplicative spread spectrum steganography // 2014 22nd European Signal Processing Conference (EUSIPCO). pp. 2440–2444 (2014).

Ustubioglu A., Ulutas G., Ulutas M. DCT based image watermarking method with dynamic gain // 2015 38th International Conference on Telecommunications and Signal Processing (TSP). pp. 550–554 (2015).

Agrawal N., Gupta A. DCT Domain Message Embedding in Spread-Spectrum Steganography System // 2009 Data Compression Conference. pp. 433–433 (2009).

Weihua X., Yongbing W., Shuiyuan Y. H.264 Video Watermark Algorithm Using DCT Spread Spectrum // 2015 3rd International Conference on Applied Computing and Information Technology/2nd International Conference on Computational Science and Intelligence. pp. 447–450 (2015).

Ling Lu, Xinde Sun, Leiting Cai. A robust image watermarking based on DCT by Arnold transform and spread spectrum // 2010 3rd International Conference on Advanced Computer Theory and Engineering(ICACTE). pp. V1-198-V1-201 (2010).

Kuznetsov A., Smirnov O., Onikiychuk A., Makushenko T., Anisimova O., Arischenko A. Adaptive Pseudo-Random Sequence Generation for Spread Spectrum Image Steganography // 2020 IEEE 11th International Conference on Dependable Systems, Services and Technologies (DESSERT). pp. 161–165 (2020).

Kuznetsov A., Smirnov A., Gorbacheva L., Babenko V. Hiding data in cover images using a pseudo-random sequences // Subbotin S. (ed.) Proceedings of The Third International Workshop on Computer Modeling and Intelligent Systems (CMIS-2020), Zaporizhzhia, Ukraine, April 27-May 1, 2020. pp. 646–660. (2020).

Korhonen J., You J. Peak signal-to-noise ratio revisited: Is simple beautiful? // 2012 Fourth International Workshop on Quality of Multimedia Experience. pp. 37–38 (2012).

Kuznetsov A., Smirnov O., Kovalchuk D., Pastukhov M., Kuznetsova K., Prokopovych-Tkachenko D. Discrete Signals with Special Correlation Properties // Luengo D., Subbotin S., Arras P., Bodyanskiy Y., Henke K., Izonin I., Levashenko V.G., Lytvynenko V., Parkhomenko A., Pester A., Shakhovska N., Sharpanskykh A., Tabunshchyk G., Wolff C., Wuttke H.-D., and Zaitseva E. (eds.) Proceedings of the Second International Workshop on Computer Modeling and Intelligent Systems (CMIS-2019), Zaporizhzhia, Ukraine, April 15-19, 2019. pp. 618–629. (2019).

Kuznetsov A., Smirnov O., Reshetniak O., Ivko T., Kuznetsova T., Katkova T. Generators of Pseudorandom Sequence with Multilevel Function of Correlation // 2019 IEEE International Scientific-Practical Conference Problems of Infocommunications, Science and Technology (PIC S T). pp. 517–522 (2019).

Kuznetsov A., Kiian A., Kuznetsova K., Zub M., Zaburmekha Y., Lyshchenko E. Pseudorandom Sequences with Multi-Level Correlation Function for Direct Spectrum Spreading // 2019 IEEE International Conference on Advanced Trends in Information Theory (ATIT). pp. 232–237 (2019).



How to Cite

Kuznetsov, A., Smirnov, O., Kiian, A., & Kuznetsova, T. (2020). Data hiding based on noise-like signal addressing. Radiotekhnika, 4(203), 38–49.




Most read articles by the same author(s)

1 2 > >>